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Han Fu

作者:天惠农
2009-12-08 10:19:07
分类: 经营管理
标签: 外国人 学中文 词汇
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Han Fu
汉服
Han Chinese clothing, or Hanfu (hàn fú 汉服,literally "Clothing of the Han people") refers to the traditional clothing of the Han Chinese, the predominant ethnic group of China.
According to legend, the first ruler of the Chinese nation and the ancestor of the Chinese people is an immemorial sage king called Huang-Di (huáng dì 黄帝 the Yellow Emperor). According to traditional reckoning, he unified the North China Plain in 2697 BC. Legends say that under his rule, China was a prosperous and powerful nation with stable politics and advanced culture. Many cultural and technological inventions are attributed to his reign, such as the Chinese written language, methods of agriculture, music, the Chinese calendar and so on. The Yellow Emperor's imperial consort, Luo-Zu, was said to be the first person to know how to raise silkworms and make silk from the silkworm cocoon, from which Hanfu was woven. Thus the Chinese Hanfu was invented.
Hanfu was regarded by Han Chinese as a very important part of their culture. The wearing of appropriate styles of Hanfu was an important part of courteous refined behaviour. Confucius considered Hanfu a very important part of Chinese ceremony and ritual and many of his quotations contain references to Hanfu.
Many traditional costumes of Asian countries, such as the kimono in Japan, the royal and traditional dress of Vietnam, Korean traditional dress hanbok are heavily influenced by Hanfu due to the extensive cultural exchanges between the neighbouring countries. In contrast to China, Traditional Japanese and Korean dress have not been affected by similar changes like in China and have been preserved over the centuries, and have retained many core elements of the original.
汉服是世界上历史*悠久的民族服饰之一。《史记》载,华夏衣裳为黄帝所制。“黄帝之前,未有衣裳屋宇。及黄帝造屋宇,制衣服,营殡葬,万民故免存亡之难。”(《史记》卷一 五帝本纪 第一)约五千年前,中国在新石器时代的仰韶文化时期,就产生了原始的农业和纺织业,开始用织成的麻布来做衣服,后又发明了饲蚕和丝纺,人们的衣冠服饰日臻完备。黄帝时代冕冠出现,服饰制度逐渐形成。夏商以后,冠服制度初步建立,西周时,逐渐完备。周代后期,由于政治、经济、思想文化都发生了急剧的变化,特别是百家学说对服饰的完善有着一定的影响,诸侯国间的衣冠服饰及风俗习惯上都开始有着明显的不同。并创造深衣。冠服制被纳入了“礼治”的范围,成了礼仪的表现形式,从此中国的衣冠服制更加详备。
汉族的这一服饰制度自周代至明代,三千年来汉人服装的基本特征是没有大的该变。一直三百多年的清初,这一服饰制度才崩溃。1644年明朝灭亡后,清在与南明的战争中,清朝统治者为了达到削弱汉人的民族认同感,以便于维护满洲贵族统治的目的,而大力推行满族发型和满族服装,并以残酷的手段禁止人民穿戴汉族服饰,史称“剃发易服”(“剃发”也作“薙发”)。这使得汉服逐渐消亡。当时孔子的后裔衍圣公孔闻謤上书多尔衮,请求保存孔府家服饰,说:“先圣为典礼之宗……定礼之大要莫于冠服……惟臣家衣冠,三千年来未曾变易……”,遭到多尔衮拒绝。 今天的旗袍、长衫、马褂都是以满族为主体的民族服饰的改良和发展,而非汉族传统的民族服饰。
辛亥革命推翻满洲贵族的统治之后,人们的思想趋于西化,改穿西式服装,没有恢复汉服。但在21世纪初,随着中国国力的发展,人们开始审视自己传统文化中的优秀部分。一些人又重新倡导恢复传统汉服并身着汉服进行推广。
(Source: http://www.easy-mandarin.cn)

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